Python operators are special symbols that perform operations on variables and values. Python supports various types of operators, each serving different purposes. Here’s a comprehensive overview of Python operators:
1. Arithmetic Operators
Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations on numerical values.
Operator  Name  Description  Example 

+ 
Addition  Adds two operands.  x + y 
 
Subtraction  Subtracts the second operand from the first.  x  y 
* 
Multiplication  Multiplies two operands.  x * y 
/ 
Division  Divides the first operand by the second.  x / y 
% 
Modulus  Returns the remainder of the division of the operands.  x % y 
** 
Exponentiation  Raises the first operand to the power of the second.  x ** y 
// 
Floor Division  Divides and returns the largest integer less than or equal to the quotient.  x // y 
2. Comparison (Relational) Operators
Comparison operators compare two values and return a Boolean result (True
or False
).
Operator  Name  Description  Example 

== 
Equal  Returns True if both operands are equal. 
x == y 
!= 
Not Equal  Returns True if operands are not equal. 
x != y 
> 
Greater Than  Returns True if the left operand is greater than the right. 
x > y 
< 
Less Than  Returns True if the left operand is less than the right. 
x < y 
>= 
Greater Than or Equal  Returns True if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right. 
x >= y 
<= 
Less Than or Equal  Returns True if the left operand is less than or equal to the right. 
x <= y 
3. Logical Operators
Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements and return a Boolean value.
Operator  Name  Description  Example 

and 
AND  Returns True if both operands are True . 
x > 5 and x < 10 
or 
OR  Returns True if at least one of the operands is True . 
x > 5 or x < 3 
not 
NOT  Reverses the logical state of its operand.  not(x > 5 and x < 10) 
4. Bitwise Operators
Bitwise operators perform bitlevel operations on integers.
Operator  Name  Description  Example 

& 
AND  Performs a bitwise AND operation.  x & y 
`  `  OR  Performs a bitwise OR operation. 
^ 
XOR  Performs a bitwise XOR operation.  x ^ y 
~ 
NOT  Inverts all the bits of the operand.  ~x 
<< 
Left Shift  Shifts the bits of the left operand to the left by the number of positions specified by the right operand.  x << 2 
>> 
Right Shift  Shifts the bits of the left operand to the right by the number of positions specified by the right operand.  x >> 2 
5. Assignment Operators
Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.
Operator  Name  Description  Example 

= 
Assignment  Assigns the righthand operand to the lefthand operand.  x = 5 
+= 
Add and Assign  Adds and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x += 5 
= 
Subtract and Assign  Subtracts and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x = 5 
*= 
Multiply and Assign  Multiplies and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x *= 5 
/= 
Divide and Assign  Divides and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x /= 5 
%= 
Modulus and Assign  Takes modulus and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x %= 5 
**= 
Exponentiate and Assign  Raises to the power and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x **= 3 
//= 
Floor Divide and Assign  Performs floor division and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x //= 3 
&= 
Bitwise AND and Assign  Performs bitwise AND and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x &= 3 
`  =`  Bitwise OR and Assign  Performs bitwise OR and assigns the result to the lefthand operand. 
^= 
Bitwise XOR and Assign  Performs bitwise XOR and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x ^= 3 
<<= 
Left Shift and Assign  Performs left shift and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x <<= 3 
>>= 
Right Shift and Assign  Performs right shift and assigns the result to the lefthand operand.  x >>= 3 
6. Identity Operators
Identity operators are used to compare the memory locations of two objects.
Operator  Name  Description  Example 

is 
Is  Returns True if both operands refer to the same object in memory. 
x is y 
is not 
Is Not  Returns True if both operands do not refer to the same object in memory. 
x is not y 
7. Membership Operators
Membership operators are used to test if a value is found within a sequence (like a string, list, or tuple).
Operator  Name  Description  Example 

in 
In  Returns True if the specified value is found in the sequence. 
"a" in "apple" 
not in 
Not In  Returns True if the specified value is not found in the sequence. 
"b" not in "apple" 
8. Miscellaneous Operators
There are a few operators that donâ€™t fall into the above categories but are still essential.

 Ternary (Conditional) Operator:
 Used for conditional expressions (shorthand for
ifelse
).  Example:
x = 10
result = "Positive" if x > 0 else "Negative"
Operator Precedence
Operators in Python have a specific order of precedence, which determines the sequence in which operations are performed in an expression. For example, multiplication and division have higher precedence than addition and subtraction.
Operator Description **
Exponentiation +
,
Unary plus and minus *
,/
,//
,%
Multiplication, Division, Floor Division, Modulus +
,
Addition, Subtraction <<
,>>
Bitwise shift operators &
Bitwise AND ^
Bitwise XOR ` ` ==
,!=
,>
,<
,>=
,<=
,is
,is not
,in
,not in
Comparison, Identity, Membership not
Logical NOT and
Logical AND or
Logical OR Examples of Python Operators in Use
 Used for conditional expressions (shorthand for
 Ternary (Conditional) Operator:
# Arithmetic Operators
a = 10
b = 5
print(a + b) # Addition: 15
print(a  b) # Subtraction: 5
print(a * b) # Multiplication: 50
print(a / b) # Division: 2.0
print(a % b) # Modulus: 0
print(a ** b) # Exponentiation: 100000
# Comparison Operators
print(a == b) # Equal: False
print(a != b) # Not equal: True
print(a > b) # Greater than: True
print(a < b) # Less than: False # Logical Operators print(a > 0 and b > 0) # Logical AND: True
print(a > 0 or b < 0) # Logical OR: True print(not (a > b)) # Logical NOT: False
# Assignment Operators
a += 5 # Add and assign: a = 15
b *= 2 # Multiply and assign: b = 10
# Identity Operators
print(a is b) # Identity: False
print(a is not b) # Identity: True
# Membership Operators
my_list = [1, 2, 3]
print(2 in my_list) # Membership: True
print(4 not in my_list) # Membership: True
# Bitwise Operators
x = 4 # (binary: 0100)
y = 5 # (binary: 0101)
print(x & y) # Bitwise AND: 4 (binary: 0100)
print(x  y) # Bitwise OR: 5 (binary: 0101)
print(x ^ y) # Bitwise XOR: 1 (binary: 0001)